Migrant Mothers

Articles, Newspaper Clippings, and Works Cited

Migrant Mothers : Pilot

Works Cited


Ken Burns: The Dust Bowl ( Trailer : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYOmjQO_UMw )

Slavery by Another Name ( Trailer : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjUF1ktxxIQ )

Black Okies ( https://vimeo.com/279773422 )

The Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great American Dust Bowl
Egan, Timothy

American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California Gregory, James N.

Proud to Be an Okie: Cultural Politics, Country Music, and Migration to Southern California (Volume 22) La Chapelle, Peter

Years of Dust: The Story of the Dust Bowl Marrin, Albert

12 Million Black Voices Wright, Richard

Scholarly Works:

“From Oklahomans to “Okies”: identity formation in rural California” Alexander, Toni Ann

“Norms, Law, and Reparations: The Case of the Ku Klux Klan in 1920s Oklahoma” Brophy, Alfred L.

“Oklatopia”: The Cultural Mission of California’s Migratory Labor Camps, 1935-1941″ O’Reilly, Kelly R.

“Women and Work: African American Women in Depression Era America” Ward, Sarah

“Strange Fruit on the Southern Plains: Racial Violence, Lynching, and African Americans in Oklahoma, 1830-1930” Woodon, Evan

Newspaper Articles:

“Negroes Plan Freedom Day” The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) · Sun, Jun 14, 1931

“Negro Group Seeks Repel of ‘Crow’ Law” The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) · Wed, 17 Jun 1931

“Murray to Address Negro Convention” The Standard-Sentinel (Stilwell, Oklahoma) · Thu, Jun 18, 1931 

“Big Celebration to be Held in the City” The Democrat-American (Sallisaw, Oklahoma) · Thu, Jun 18, 1931 

The Blue Valley Farmer (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) · Thu, Jun 18, 1931

Additional Sites:




Migrant Mothers : The Laws of No Man’s Land

Newspaper Articles:

“Hoover Gets Six States” The New York Times (New York, New York) · Nov. 10, 1932

“Dig Out of Oklahoma Jail” The New York Times (New York, New York) · Dec. 15, 1929

“Convicts tunnel McAlester walls” Seminole Morning News (Seminole, Oklahoma) · Sun, Dec. 15,

“Slain Bandit Identified as Pal of Floyd” Miami Daily News-Record (Miami, Oklahoma) · Thu, Nov. 24, 1932 

“Funeral is Held for Slain Robber” Okmulgee Daily Times (Okmulgee, Oklahoma) · Sat, Nov. 26, 1932  

“Three are Slain in Bank Robbery” Okmulgee Daily Times (Okmulgee, Oklahoma) · Thu, Nov. 24, 1932 

“Historic Oklahoma Bank Tied to Pretty Boy Floyd to be Restored” Wallace, Josh, The Oklahoman · Mar. 31, 2019

“Only in Oklahoma: Boley Proved its Bank was not an Easy Target” Curtis, Gene, Tulsa World  · Feb. 25, 2007


“Historic Black town, Boley OK, Fended Off Pretty Boy Floyd’s Bank Robbers” The Gist of Freedom, Blog Talk Radio · 2016. 

Additional Sites:

“Repeal of Prohibition in the United States”,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repeal_of_Prohibition_in_the_United_States
“Bank Robbery in Boley, Oklahoma” McRae, Bennie J. Jr, http://lestweforget.hamptonu.edu 
“Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd” https://www.carnegie.lib.oh.us/Floyd
“Bandit in Boley” Birdwell-Branson, Jamie, https://thislandpress.com/2014/08/10/bandit-in-boley/

Episode’s Image Reference Citation:

  • Annabelle – Dorothea Lange Wife and Child of Tractor Farmer, 1937
  • Peter – (Natural / Sepia) Ben Shahn, Three Negro children, Natchez, Mississippi, 1935 (Sepia / Vivid) Ben Shahn, Huntingdon, Tennessee, 1935
  • Floyd – Ben Shahn, Sharecropper on Sunday, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1935
  • Pauline – (Natural / Sepia) Walker Evans Girl in French Quarter, New Orleans, 1935 (Sepia / Vivid) Dorothea Lange Cotton hoer near Clarksdale, Mississippi, 1937
  • Jessy – Dorothea Lange Migrant shed worker. Northeast Florida, 1936
  • Lucille – Dorothea Lange Old Negress of Greene County, Georgia, 1937
  • Clay – (Natural / Sepia) Eudora Welty Untitled (Hinds County), circa 1930 (Sepia / Vivid) Dorothea Lange, Shipyard Worker, Richmond California, 1943
  • Ginny – Dorothea Lange Untitled (Oklahoma Mother in California) 1937
  • Wayne – (Natural / Sepia) John Vachon Young Boy in Baltimore slum area, 1938 (Sepia / Vivid) Unknown Young Farmer in Arkansas, 1930
  • Floyd – Ben Shahn, Maynardville, Tennessee, 1935
  • James – (Natural / Sepia) Dorothea Lange Preschool children, Kern migrant camp, California, 1936 (Sepia / Vivid) Arthur Rothstein Son of a sharecropper, Mississippi County, Arkansas, 1935